Cedera yang Biasa Menimpa Pemain Sepak Bola

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Selama ini kita sering denger pemain sepak bola banyak yang cedera....

cedera ini, cedera itu, banyak banget d....

tapi kita sebenarnya ga gtu ngerti, maksudnya itu cedera apaan....

semoga obrolan di bawah ini bisa membantu pemahaman kita.....

Cedera yang akan dibahas difokuskan cedera yang ada di sekitar kaki....

cedera tangan, leher, punggung, bahu, dll ga gtu dibahas...

Let`s start...

Secara umum, cedera di sekitar kaki yang sering menimpa pemain sepakbola dibagi ke dalam 4 bagian :

1. Knee Injury (cedera lutut)

2. Thigh and hip Injury (cedera paha dan pinggul)

3. Ankle Injury (cedera pergelangan kaki)

4. Foot Injury (cedera kaki *bagian di bawah pergelangan kaki*)

Spoiler for 1. Knee Injury:

Cedera pada lutut biasanya terjadi pada ligamen. Ligamen itu adalah ikatan sendi tulang, yang berarti menjaga agar sendi tulang tetap menyatu..

Ada 3 macam cedera pada lutut yang biasa terjadi (sebetulnya ada banyak jenis lainnya) :

Spoiler for a. Medial Ligament Sprain (Kerusakan pada ligamen tengah):

The Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) connects the inner (medial) surfaces of the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (shin bone). Its function is to resist forces applied from the outer surface of the knee and so prevent the medial (inner) portion of the joint from wideing under stress. Injury to the MCL often occurs after an impact to the outside of the knee when the knee is slightly bent. The MCL on the inside of the knee becomes stretched and if the force is great enough, some or even all of the fibres will tear. The deep part of ligament is prone to becoming damaged first and this may lead to medial meniscal damage also

Spoiler for b. ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament) Knee Injury:

A torn ACL is an injury or tear to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The ACL is one of the four main stabilising ligaments of the knee, the others being the Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL), Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) and Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL). The ACL attaches to the knee end of the Femur (thigh bone), at the back of the joint and passes down through the knee joint to the front of the flat upper surface of the Tibia (shin bone).

The role of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament is to prevent forward movement of the Tibia from underneath the femur. The Posterior Cruciate Ligament prevents movement of the Tibia in a backwards direction. Together these two ligaments are vitally important to the stability of the knee joint, especially in contact sports and those that involve fast changes in direction and twisting and pivoting movements. Therefore a torn ACL has serious implications for the stability and function of the knee joint.

A torn ACL or acl injury is a relatively common knee injury amongst sports people. A torn ACL usually occurs through a twisting force being applied to the knee whilst the foot is firmly planted on the ground or upon landing. A torn ACL can also result from a direct blow to the knee, usually the outside, as may occur during a football or rugby tackle.

Spoiler for c. Medial Cartilage Meniscus Injury:

Each knee joint has two crescent-shaped cartilage menisci. These lie on the medial (inside) and lateral (outside) of the upper surface of the tibia (shin) bone. They are essential components of the knee, acting as shock absorbers as well as allowing for the proper interaction and weight distribution between the tibia and the femur (thigh bone). As a result, injury to either meniscus can lead to critical impairment of the knee itself.

The medial meniscus is more prone to injury than the lateral meniscus as it is connected to the medial collateral ligament and the joint capsule and so is less mobile. Hence, any forces impacting from the outer surface of the knee, such as a rugby tackle, can severely damage the medial meniscus. In addition, medial meniscal injuries are often also associated with injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament. Other mechanisms of injury may be twisting the knee or degenerative changes that are associated with age. Any of these circumstances may lead to tearing of the medial meniscus, which in serious cases may require surgical intervention.

Spoiler for 2. Thigh and Hip Injury:

Spoiler for a. Pulled Harmstring / Harmstring Strain (Otot paha tertarik):

A hamstring strain or a pulled hamstring as it is sometimes called is a tear in one or more of the hamstrings muscles. Strictly speaking there are three hamstring muscles (Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris) which are known as the hamstring muscle group.

The role of the hamstring muscles is to bend (flex) the knee and to move the thigh backwards at the hip (extend the hip). Understanding how the hamstrings work give vital clues as to their modes of injury. Mild to severe hamstring strains are extremely common in sprinters and hurdle jumpers and in all sports that involve sprinting activities, such as football and rugby.

Spoiler for b. Groin Strain (Tegang pada otot pangkal paha):

A groin strain is a tear or rupture to any one of the adductor muscles. There are five adductor muscles, the pectineus, adductor brevis and adductor longus (called short adductors which go from the pelvis to the thigh bone) and the gracilis and adductor magnus (long adductors which go from the pelvis to the knee).

The most common muscle to be injured is the adductor longus muscle which connects from the pubic ramus (part of the lower pelvis) to the medial (inner) surface of the femur (thigh bone).

The main function of the adductors is to pull the legs back towards the midline, a movement called adduction. During normal walking they are used in pulling the swinging lower limb towards the middle to maintain balance. They are also used extensively in sprinting, playing football, horse riding, hurdling and any sport which requires fast changes in direction.

A rupture or tear in the muscle usually occurs when sprinting, changing direction or in rapid movements of the leg against resistance such as kicking a ball. Repetitive overuse of the groin muscles may result in adductor tendinopathy.

Spoiler for c. Hernia (turun bero):

Hernias occur when part of the internal tissue (fat, muscle, intestines etc) bulge through a weakness in the overlying abdominal wall. The herniating tissues are at risk of complications such as strangulation (pinching) which can cause intestinal blockages and may cut off the blood supply which requires immediate treatment.

Spoiler for 3. Ankle Injury:

Spoiler for a. Sprained Ankle:

A sprained ankle or twisted ankle as it is sometimes known, is a common cause of ankle pain. A sprain is stretching and or tearing of ligaments (you sprain a ligament and strain a muscle). The most common is an inversion sprain (or lateral ligament sprain) where the ankle turns over so the sole of the foot faces inwards, damaging the ligaments on the outside of the ankle.

Severely sprained ankles, where there are complete ruptures of the anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular and posterior talofibular ligaments, result in dislocation of the ankle joint which are often associated with a fracture.

Spoiler for b. Footballer`s ankle:

Footballers' ankle occurs when you get a bony growth at the front of the ankle where the joint capsule attaches. It can follow an injury where the ankle has been over stretched or over bent. The bony deposits cause inflammation in the joint capsule and tendons.

Spoiler for 4. Foot Injury:

Spoiler for a. Metatarsal Stress Fracture:

Metatarsals are the long bones in the forefoot. There are five of them in each foot and they attach to the phalanges (toe bones) at the front and the Tarsal bones towards the ankle.

These bones can be fractured through impact for example a viscous football stud (acute fracture), or more gradual onset as stress fracture.

This usually will involve the second, third or forth metatarsal bones. An athlete who has a second toe which is longer than their big toe will be particularly prone to a fracture of the second metatarsal.

sumber : http://www.kaskus.us/showthread.php?t=3776911

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